Yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata)
Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Gubernatrix cristata is a sought-after cage bird in its native Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay because of its melodic song. Adult males and females appear similar, although the male is more brightly coloured. It has a varied diet, feeding on seeds, insects, and fruit. It generally lives in pairs, but may have travelled in groups when it was more common. Males are highly territorial, and trappers take advantage of this by placing a caged male in another male’s territory to attract it. 
Illegal trade is the main threat to G. cristata, along with habitat fragmentation. Hybridisation with the common diuca-finch (Diuca diuca) is also known to occur. 
G. cristata is protected in Uruguay and Argentina, where trapping is illegal. It is also listed under Appendix II of CITES, which restricts international trade. It lives in a few different protected areas across its range, and captive breeding programmes have begun in Brazil and Uruguay. 
Photo: Guillermo Soteras on Eco Registros.

Yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata)

Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Gubernatrix cristata is a sought-after cage bird in its native Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay because of its melodic song. Adult males and females appear similar, although the male is more brightly coloured. It has a varied diet, feeding on seeds, insects, and fruit. It generally lives in pairs, but may have travelled in groups when it was more common. Males are highly territorial, and trappers take advantage of this by placing a caged male in another male’s territory to attract it. 

Illegal trade is the main threat to G. cristata, along with habitat fragmentation. Hybridisation with the common diuca-finch (Diuca diuca) is also known to occur. 

G. cristata is protected in Uruguay and Argentina, where trapping is illegal. It is also listed under Appendix II of CITES, which restricts international trade. It lives in a few different protected areas across its range, and captive breeding programmes have begun in Brazil and Uruguay. 

Photo: Guillermo Soteras on Eco Registros.

Black-spectacled brush-finch (Atlapetes melanopsis)
Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Atlapetes melanopsis was only described in 1999, and is found in only five locations in Peru. It gathers in small groups of two or three individuals, and probably feeds on seeds and insects. It lives at elevations of 2000-3500 metres. Very little else is known about this species. 
As it has a small and fragmented distribution, A. melanopsis is vulnerable to extinction due to habitat destruction. However, people are leaving the areas where this species is found, so the forest clearance may reduce. 
There are currently no conservation measures targeting A. melanopsis.
Photo: Fabrice Schmitt on ARKive.

Black-spectacled brush-finch (Atlapetes melanopsis)

Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Atlapetes melanopsis was only described in 1999, and is found in only five locations in Peru. It gathers in small groups of two or three individuals, and probably feeds on seeds and insects. It lives at elevations of 2000-3500 metres. Very little else is known about this species. 

As it has a small and fragmented distribution, A. melanopsis is vulnerable to extinction due to habitat destruction. However, people are leaving the areas where this species is found, so the forest clearance may reduce. 

There are currently no conservation measures targeting A. melanopsis.

Photo: Fabrice Schmitt on ARKive.

Today I found the tansy beetle, which is endangered in the UK!
Read about it here: [x]
Photo by Puppy, who has a new plant blog here: [x]

Today I found the tansy beetle, which is endangered in the UK!

Read about it here: [x]

Photo by Puppy, who has a new plant blog here: [x]

What is a finch?
Finches are birds of the family Fringillidae. They are generally found in the Northern Hemisphere, although one subfamily lives in the Neotropics, and another in Hawaii. These are true finches, but many other birds are also called finches. The famous Darwin’s finches of the Galapagos are not true finches, and are in fact tanagers. 
Although most finches eat seeds, some feed on insects and berries. The honeycreepers of Hawaii show a great deal of adaptive radiation to exploit different food sources. Some have lost the short, thick bill typical of finches and instead have a long, thin bill for feeding on nectar from flowers. 
Many finches show sexual dimorphism, with males more brightly coloured than females. Red and yellow colouration in males is common, while females are usually brown or green. 
Photo: Cochabamba mountain-finch (Compsospiza garleppi) by Diego R. Méndez Mojica. 

What is a finch?

Finches are birds of the family Fringillidae. They are generally found in the Northern Hemisphere, although one subfamily lives in the Neotropics, and another in Hawaii. These are true finches, but many other birds are also called finches. The famous Darwin’s finches of the Galapagos are not true finches, and are in fact tanagers. 

Although most finches eat seeds, some feed on insects and berries. The honeycreepers of Hawaii show a great deal of adaptive radiation to exploit different food sources. Some have lost the short, thick bill typical of finches and instead have a long, thin bill for feeding on nectar from flowers. 

Many finches show sexual dimorphism, with males more brightly coloured than females. Red and yellow colouration in males is common, while females are usually brown or green. 

Photo: Cochabamba mountain-finch (Compsospiza garleppi) by Diego R. Méndez Mojica. 

dendroica:

Silver-cheeked and Unique: Santa Marta Brush-Finch

The Santa Marta Brush-Finch is only found in the isolated Santa Marta mountain range of northern Colombia, the highest coastal mountain range in the world. This range, isolated from the Andes, is also one of the most endemic-rich regions of South America, with nearly 50 endemic bird species. Although smaller than the state of Connecticut, the Santa Marta range contains more than 630 resident bird species—more than the continental United States!

This brush-finch has a unique facial pattern, with an all-black head and contrasting silvery-grey cheek patch, set off by reddish eyes. They tend to forage at or below eye level, as is typical of brush-finches.

Although the Santa Marta Brush-Finch has a very small range, it is common within it. “These attractive brush-finches are actually quite common locally at the El Dorado Reserve, and can easily be seen feeding in open and brushy areas in the garden and along the road,” said Benjamin Skolnik, Conservation Projects Specialist at ABC.

Unfortunately, the Santa Marta range has suffered severe habitat loss and degradation due to uncontrolled colonization, since it is just 12 miles from the rapidly growing coastal city of Santa Marta. ABC and Colombian partner Fundación ProAves first protected land here with the creation of the El Dorado Reserve in 2006, and has continued to add to the reserve as opportunities have arisen.

ABC is gathering with over a dozen partner groups at the El Dorado Reserve during the first week of April 2014 for a workshop on reforestation and other sustainability themes such as ecotourism.

Other bird species endemic to the Santa Marta mountain range are protected at El Dorado, including the Santa Marta Parakeet, Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant, Santa Marta Mountain-Tanager, Santa Marta Antpitta, and Santa Marta Sabrewing, documented here in 2010 for the first time in 60 years.

ABC partners protect other brush-finch species and subspecies, including the critically endangered Pale-headed Brush-Finch, in southern Ecuador and the Yariguíes Brush-Finch, discovered in 2006 and now protected in a national park adjoining the Cerulean Warbler Reserve of central Colombia.

Hi everyone! This week’s endangered species will be: Finches!
Photo: Yellow-headed brush-finch (Atlapetes flaviceps) from Fundación ProAves. 

Hi everyone! This week’s endangered species will be: Finches!

Photo: Yellow-headed brush-finch (Atlapetes flaviceps) from Fundación ProAves

Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus)
Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Nasalis larvatus is endemic to Borneo, and adult males are identified by an extremely long nose. There is a great deal of sexual dimorphism in this species, and as well as having a long nose, males can be twice as large as females and have a bright red penis and black scrotum. Both males and females even have slightly webbed feet, and are excellent swimmers. Related females live together with a dominant male, while young males live in bachelor groups. 
Deforestation for palm oil plantations and timber have destroyed much of the forest habitat of N. larvatus. This species is sometimes also hunted, and are easy caught as groups sometimes gather near water. 
International trade of N. larvatus is banned under Appendix I of CITES. Several protected areas include populations, but they are isolated and therefore vulnerable to extinction. 
Photo: David Dennis on Wikipedia.

Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus)

Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Nasalis larvatus is endemic to Borneo, and adult males are identified by an extremely long nose. There is a great deal of sexual dimorphism in this species, and as well as having a long nose, males can be twice as large as females and have a bright red penis and black scrotum. Both males and females even have slightly webbed feet, and are excellent swimmers. Related females live together with a dominant male, while young males live in bachelor groups. 

Deforestation for palm oil plantations and timber have destroyed much of the forest habitat of N. larvatus. This species is sometimes also hunted, and are easy caught as groups sometimes gather near water. 

International trade of N. larvatus is banned under Appendix I of CITES. Several protected areas include populations, but they are isolated and therefore vulnerable to extinction. 

Photo: David Dennis on Wikipedia.

Caquetá titi monkey (Callicebus caquetensis)
Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Callicebus caquetensis has only been known to science since 2008, and was discovered on Columbia. Although little is known about it, it has been observed living in small groups of an adult pair and their offspring. The family will defend their territory from invaders, and the male will usually lead the group on foraging trips. Like other monkeys, it mainly feeds on fruit and leaves, but will also eat insects and eggs.
Deforestation for agriculture has greatly reduced the forest home of C. caquetensis. In order to move from one patch of trees to another, it must cross exposed areas, which can increase the risk of predation. 
There are currently no conservation measures targeting C. caquetensis. More studies and enforced protection are needed to save this species from extinction. 
Photo: Thomas Defler on ARKive.

Caquetá titi monkey (Callicebus caquetensis)

Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Callicebus caquetensis has only been known to science since 2008, and was discovered on Columbia. Although little is known about it, it has been observed living in small groups of an adult pair and their offspring. The family will defend their territory from invaders, and the male will usually lead the group on foraging trips. Like other monkeys, it mainly feeds on fruit and leaves, but will also eat insects and eggs.

Deforestation for agriculture has greatly reduced the forest home of C. caquetensis. In order to move from one patch of trees to another, it must cross exposed areas, which can increase the risk of predation. 

There are currently no conservation measures targeting C. caquetensis. More studies and enforced protection are needed to save this species from extinction. 

Photo: Thomas Defler on ARKive.

Kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji)
Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Rungwecebus kipunji was discovered independently by two research groups in Tanzania in 2003 and 2004. One of the characteristics used to identify it as a new species was its distinctive low-pitched call. As it has only recently been discovered, virtually nothing is known about its lifestyle. 
The forests of Rungwe and Livingstone where R. kipunji lives are threatened by logging and charcoal production. Habitat degradation will fragment the forests and isolate populations, making this species more vulnerable to extinction.
Kitulo National Park provides some protection to R. kipunji, but an expansion of this protected area is needed to help save this species. It is hoped that more conservation measures will be planned as further similar discoveries are made. 
Photo: Tim Davenport on ARKive.

Kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji)

Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Rungwecebus kipunji was discovered independently by two research groups in Tanzania in 2003 and 2004. One of the characteristics used to identify it as a new species was its distinctive low-pitched call. As it has only recently been discovered, virtually nothing is known about its lifestyle. 

The forests of Rungwe and Livingstone where R. kipunji lives are threatened by logging and charcoal production. Habitat degradation will fragment the forests and isolate populations, making this species more vulnerable to extinction.

Kitulo National Park provides some protection to R. kipunji, but an expansion of this protected area is needed to help save this species. It is hoped that more conservation measures will be planned as further similar discoveries are made. 

Photo: Tim Davenport on ARKive.

White-cheeked spider monkey (Ateles marginatus)
Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Like other spider monkeys, Ateles marginatus has a long prehensile tail that acts as another limb. The tip of the tail even has a bare patch with ridges to help grip branches. It lives in the Brazilian Amazon, and little is known about this species. However, it is likely to have a similar diet, social organisation, and reproductive behaviour as other spider monkeys. Groups of 20 to 30 individuals live together, often splitting into smaller groups, and breeding occurs year-round.
Habitat destruction for soy bean plantations is the main threat to A. marginatus. Major highways through its range are disruptive, and it is also hunted. 
A. marginatus lives in several protected areas, and it is the flagship species of Cristalino State Park. It is hoped that this will raise awareness and help to conserve this species. Surveys are also being carried out in order to discover more about its biology.
Photo: Adriano Gambarini on WWF Brasil.

White-cheeked spider monkey (Ateles marginatus)

Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Like other spider monkeys, Ateles marginatus has a long prehensile tail that acts as another limb. The tip of the tail even has a bare patch with ridges to help grip branches. It lives in the Brazilian Amazon, and little is known about this species. However, it is likely to have a similar diet, social organisation, and reproductive behaviour as other spider monkeys. Groups of 20 to 30 individuals live together, often splitting into smaller groups, and breeding occurs year-round.

Habitat destruction for soy bean plantations is the main threat to A. marginatus. Major highways through its range are disruptive, and it is also hunted. 

A. marginatus lives in several protected areas, and it is the flagship species of Cristalino State Park. It is hoped that this will raise awareness and help to conserve this species. Surveys are also being carried out in order to discover more about its biology.

Photo: Adriano Gambarini on WWF Brasil.

Javan surili (Presbytis comata)
Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Presbytis comata is a small Old World monkey living in western and central Java. It mainly feeds on leaves, and has a large multi-chambered stomach for digesting tough cellulose. It is active during the day, and forages in groups of up to 23. There is usually one breeding male per group, and other young males leave the group before they reach adolescence. 
Habitat loss has caused a 50% drop in the numbers of P. comata during the last decade, and only around 4% of this species’ natural habitat remains. 
There are several protected areas containing populations of P. comata, and it is also listed under Appendix II of CITES, which restricts international trade of this species.
Photo: Pierre de Chabannes on ARKive.

Javan surili (Presbytis comata)

Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Presbytis comata is a small Old World monkey living in western and central Java. It mainly feeds on leaves, and has a large multi-chambered stomach for digesting tough cellulose. It is active during the day, and forages in groups of up to 23. There is usually one breeding male per group, and other young males leave the group before they reach adolescence. 

Habitat loss has caused a 50% drop in the numbers of P. comata during the last decade, and only around 4% of this species’ natural habitat remains. 

There are several protected areas containing populations of P. comata, and it is also listed under Appendix II of CITES, which restricts international trade of this species.

Photo: Pierre de Chabannes on ARKive.

What is a monkey?
Monkeys are primates, and are usually split into two major groups: New World monkeys of the Americas and Old World monkeys of Africa and Asia. New World monkeys are classified in the parvorder Platyrrhini, while Old World monkeys are included with humans and other apes in the parvorder Catarrhini.
A characteristic difference between the two groups is that new World monkeys generally have a prehensile tail, whereas Old World monkeys have a non-prehensile tail or no visible tail at all. Another difference is that female Old World monkeys tend to live in groups of mothers and their offspring, with males moving between groups and establishing dominance within each group. New World monkeys, however, are more likely to be socially monogamous, and the males may provide parental care to offspring.
Finally, most New World monkeys lack trichromatic vision, whereas Old World monkeys and humans have trichromatic vision. This means that Old World monkeys and ourselves have three cones in the retina that can detect red, green, and blue. New World monkeys usually have dichromatic vision, and have cones for only two colours. However, by a genetic quirk, some female New World monkeys actually have trichromatic vision, as it is a gene on the X chromosome that controls colour vision. As females have two X chromosomes, a female may have two different alleles for different sensitivities to wavelengths of light, and so be able to see a wider range of colours.
Photo: Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) by Yathin S. Krishnappa on Wikipedia.

What is a monkey?

Monkeys are primates, and are usually split into two major groups: New World monkeys of the Americas and Old World monkeys of Africa and Asia. New World monkeys are classified in the parvorder Platyrrhini, while Old World monkeys are included with humans and other apes in the parvorder Catarrhini.

A characteristic difference between the two groups is that new World monkeys generally have a prehensile tail, whereas Old World monkeys have a non-prehensile tail or no visible tail at all. Another difference is that female Old World monkeys tend to live in groups of mothers and their offspring, with males moving between groups and establishing dominance within each group. New World monkeys, however, are more likely to be socially monogamous, and the males may provide parental care to offspring.

Finally, most New World monkeys lack trichromatic vision, whereas Old World monkeys and humans have trichromatic vision. This means that Old World monkeys and ourselves have three cones in the retina that can detect red, green, and blue. New World monkeys usually have dichromatic vision, and have cones for only two colours. However, by a genetic quirk, some female New World monkeys actually have trichromatic vision, as it is a gene on the X chromosome that controls colour vision. As females have two X chromosomes, a female may have two different alleles for different sensitivities to wavelengths of light, and so be able to see a wider range of colours.

Photo: Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) by Yathin S. Krishnappa on Wikipedia.